Starting in Android 8.0, Android devices use randomized MAC addresses when probingfor new networks while not currently associated with a network. In Android9, you can enable a developer option (it'sdisabled by default) to cause the device to use a randomized MAC addresswhen connecting to a Wi-Fi network.
Important: Mac computers can't tether with Android by USB. Connect your phone to the other device with a USB cable. A notification shows at the top of the screen. Older Android devices have a USB Storage Mode that can be activated by plugging your device into your Mac, pulling down the notification shade, and tapping on the USB notification. Google login on Android. You can easily find out which of your Google email addresses is.
In Android 10, MAC randomization is enabled by defaultfor client mode, SoftAp, and Wi-Fi Direct.
MAC randomization prevents listeners from using MAC addresses to build a historyof device activity, thus increasing user privacy.
Additionally, MAC addresses are randomized as part ofWi-Fi Aware andWi-Fi RTT operations.
To implement MAC randomization on your device:
Work with a Wi-Fi chip vendor to implement the following HAL methods:
IWifiStaIface#setMacAddress: Configures the MAC address of theinterface. The default implementation brings the interface down, changesthe MAC address, and brings the interface back up.
IWifiStaIface#getFactoryMacAddress: Gets the factory MAC of
ISupplicantP2pIface#setMacRandomization: Sets P2P MAC randomizationon/off in the supplicant.
truein the Settings
config.xml(this can be done in a devicecustom overlay).
- This flag is used to control whether client-mode MAC randomization isenabled.
truein the Settings
config.xml(this can be done in a devicecustom overlay).
- This flag is used to control whether Wi-Fi direct MAC randomization isenabled.
Test your implementation using the methods described inValidation.
The System UI must:
- Have an option to enable or disable randomization for each SSID.
- Have MAC randomization enabled by default for all newly added networks.
Use thereference implementation of Settings UI to implement new prompts.
Devices running Android 9 or lower might not havesupport for Wi-Fi MAC randomization. When upgrading such devices to Android10, the Wi-Fi MAC randomization feature can be disabledby setting the
WIFI_HIDL_FEATURE_DISABLE_AP_MAC_RANDOMIZATION flag to true inthe Wi-Fi vendor HAL make file.
To validate that the feature is working as intended, run both an integrationtest (ACTS) and a manual test.
To run an integration test, use the ACTS file,
WifiMacRandomizationTest.py, located in
tools/test/connectivity/acts/tests/google/wifi, to verify that the device usesthe randomized MAC address and correctly stores the randomized MAC address foreach network.
To run a manual test:
- Verify that MAC randomization is enabled on the device by checking that
config_wifi_connected_mac_randomization_supportedis set to
truein thedevice overlay.
- Connect to a Wi-Fi network.
- Tap the network to go to the Network details page. Verify that MACrandomization is turned on. Verify that the MAC address displayed is arandomized MAC, which has the locally generated bit set to 1 and themulticast bit set to 0.
- Turn MAC randomization off. Connect to the same network and verifythat the factory MAC is being used.
- Delete the network by tapping Forget on the Network details page.
Connect to the same network and verify that the same randomized MACaddress is being used.Note: Randomized MAC addresses are generated per SSID and are persistent.
To test MAC randomization on a pre-Android 10 device(capable of supporting MAC randomization) upgrading to Android10 or higher:
- Have at least one saved network on a device runningAndroid 9 or lower.
- Flash the Android 10 system image.
- In the Wi-Fi picker, verify that MAC randomization is turned off for allsaved networks.
- Turn MAC randomization on. Connect to the same network and verifythat the randomized MAC is being used.
When building an Android app, it's important that you always test your app ona real device before releasing it to users. This page describes how to set upyour development environment and Android device for testing and debugging overan Android Debug Bridge (ADB) connection.Note: Use the Android emulator to test your app ondifferent versions of the Android platform and different screen sizes. Alsoconsider using Firebase Test Labto run your app on a wide variety of real devices hosted in acloud-based infrastructure.
Set up a device for development
Before you can start debugging on your device, there are a few things you mustdo:
On the device, open the Settings app, select Developer options, andthen enable USB debugging.Note: If you do not see Developer options, follow the instructions toenable developer options.
Set up your system to detect your device.
- Chrome OS: No additional configuration required.
- macOS: No additional configuration required.
Ubuntu Linux: There are two things that need to be set up correctly:each user that wants to use adb needs to be in the plugdev group,and the system needs to have udev rules installed that cover the device.
plugdev group: If you see an error message that says you're not in theplugdev group, you'll need to add yourself to the plugdev group:
Note that groups only get updated on login, so you'll need to log out forthis change to take effect. When you log back in, you can use
idtocheck that you're now in the plugdev group.
udev rules: The
android-sdk-platform-tools-commonpackage containsa community-maintained default set of udev rules for Android devices. Toinstall:
Windows: Install a USB driver for ADB. For an installation guide andlinks to OEM drivers, see the Install OEM USB driversdocument.
Connect to your device
When you are set up and plugged in over USB, you can click Run in Android Studio to build and run your app on the device.
You can also use adb to issue commands,as follows:
- Verify that your device is connected by running the
adb devicescommandfrom your
android_sdk/platform-tools/directory. Ifconnected, you'll see the device listed.
- Issue any adb command withthe
-dflag to target your device.
Troubleshoot device connection with the Connection Assistant
The Connection Assistant provides step-by-step instructions to help you set upand use a device over the ADB connection.
To start the assistant, choose Tools > Connection Assistant.
The Connection Assistant provides instructions, in-context controls, and a listof connected devices in a series of pages in the Assistant panel. Use theNext and Previous buttons at the bottom of the Assistant panel towork through the pages as needed:
- Connect your device over USB: The Connection Assistant begins by promptingyou to connect your device over USB, and it provides a Rescan USB devicesbutton with which you can start a new scan for connected devices.
- Enable USB debugging: The Connection Assistant then tells you how toenable USB debugging in the on-device developer options.
- Restart the ADB server: Finally, if you still don't see your device on thelist of available devices, you can use the Restart ADB server button on thelast page of the Connection Assistant. Restarting the ADB server also causesADB to scan for devices again. If you still don't see your device on the listof available devices, try the troubleshooting steps in the next section of thispage.
Resolve USB connection issues
If the Connection Assistant is not detecting your device over USB, you can trythe following troubleshooting steps to resolve the issue:
Check that Android Studio can connect to the Android Emulator
To check if the issue is being caused by a connection problem between AndroidStudio and the Android Emulator, follow these steps:
- Open the AVD Manager.
- Create a new AVD if you don't alreadyhave one.
- Run the emulator using your AVD.
- Do one of the following:
- If Android Studio can't connect to the emulator, download the latest SDK Platform Toolsand then try again.
- If the emulator starts successfully, check the USB cable.
Check the USB cable
Android Connect Bluetooth Mac Address
To check if the issue is being caused by a faulty USB cable, follow the steps inthis section.
If you have another USB cable:
- Connect the device using the secondary cable.
- Check if the Connection Assistant can now detect the device.
- If the device is not detected, try the primary cable again.
- If the device still isn't detected, assume that the problem is with thedevice and check if the device is set up for development.
If you don't have another USB cable but you do have another Android device:
- Connect the secondary device to your computer.
If the Connection Assistant can detect the secondary device, assume that theproblem is with the primary device andcheck if the device is set up for development.
If the secondary device is not detected, the problem might be with the USBcable.
Check if the device is set up for development
To check if the issue is being caused by settings on the device, follow thesesteps:
- Follow the steps in the Set up a device for developmentsection.
- If this does not resolve the problem, contact the device OEM'scustomer support for help. Tell the customer support representative that thedevice won't connect to Android Studio using ADB.
RSA security key
Android Connect For Mac Windows 7
When you connect a device running Android 4.2.2 (API level 17) or higher to yourcomputer, the system shows a dialog asking whether to accept an RSA key thatallows debugging through this computer. This security mechanism protects userdevices because it ensures that USB debugging and other adb commands cannot beexecuted unless you're able to unlock the device and acknowledge the dialog.